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Economy of Romania

Population: 20 million in 20131

GDP: $190 billion in 20132

GDP per capita: $9,499 nominal3 ($18,635 PPP4) in 2013

GDP growth rate: 3.5% in 20135


GDP by Industry 20126

Industry sectorValue added ($ billions) 2012Percent of total
Other activities5333.2%
Transport, storage and communication1710.4%
Mining and utilities148.3%
Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing127.5%
Wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels106.1%
Total value added160100%


Unemployment rate: 7.3% in 20137

Employment by Industry 20138

Employment sector Employees (thousands) 2013Percent of total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing2,63428.5%
Wholesale trade, retail trade and repair of motor vehicles1,20913.1%
Transportation and storage4605.0%
Public administration and defence4564.9%
Human health and social work3864.2%
Accommodation and food service1942.1%
Administrative and support service1822.0%
Professional, scientific and technical1801.9%
Information and communication1521.6%
Finance and insurance1271.4%
Other service1261.4%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning991.1%
Water supply, sewerage and waste management881.0%
Mining and quarrying830.9%
Activities of households as employers630.7%
Arts, entertainment and recreation570.6%
Real estate190.2%
Extraterritorial organizations and bodies00.0%
Total employment9,247100%


Top 10 Corporations by Revenue 20139



Household Wealth: $257 billion (135% of GDP) in 201410

Household Wealth per Adult: $15,442 in 201410

Gini Coefficient: .274 in 201111


Central Government

Central Government Revenue: $60 billion (32% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Expenditure: $65 billion (34% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Budget Balance: -$5 billion (-2% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Public Debt: $60 billion (32% of GDP) in Q3 2014* 13

Central Government 10 Year Bond Interest Rate: 2.07% on Jan 28, 201514

* Public debt calculated using the exchange rate 3.95 RON = 1 USD

Government Funds


Tax Structure

Individual Income Tax Rates and Thresholds

Corporate Tax Rate: 16% in 201416

Monetary Policy

Money Supply (M0): $30 billion (16% of GDP) in Dec 2015* 17

Benchmark Interest Rate: 2.5% in Dec 201418

Total Reserves: $49 billion (26% of GDP) in 201319

Exchange Rate: 3.95 Romanian Leu = 1 U.S. Dollar on Jan 28, 201520

Inflation: 4.0% in 201321

* Money supply calculated using the exchange rate 3.95 RON = 1 USD

Financial Institutions

Top 10 Financial Institutions by Assets 201322

N/A (data not available at Relbanks.com)

International Accounts

Exports: $66 billion (35% of GDP) in 201323

Imports: $73 billion (38% of GDP) in 201323

Trade Balance: -$7 billion (-3% of GDP) in 201323

Foreign Direct Investment Inflow: $4 billion (2% of GDP) in 201324

Foreign Direct Investment Outflow: N/A

Foreign Aid Inflow: N/A

Foreign Aid Outflow: N/A


1. Source: World Bank Indicators (Population) Go back
2. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP) Go back
3. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP per capita) Go back
4. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP per capita PPP) Go back
5. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP growth rate) Go back
6. Source: United Nations Statistics Division (GDP by industry) Go back
7. Source: World Bank Indicators (Unemployment rate) Go back
8. Source: International Labor Organization, Downloads (Employment by economic activity) Go back
9. Source: Annual reports (Corporate data) Go back
10. Source: Credit Suisse Global Wealth Databook (Household wealth) Go back
11. Source: CIA World Factbook (Gini coefficient) Go back
12. Source: CIA World Factbook (Government budget) Go back
13. Source: IMF Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board, Access National Summary Data (Public debt) Go back
14. Source: Investing.com (Government bond yield) Go back
15. Source: Confederation Fiscale Europeenne (Individual Tax Rates) Go back
16. Source: Tax Foundation (Corporate tax rate) Go back
17. Source: National Bank of Romania, Broad Money (Money supply) Go back
18. Source: National Bank of Romania, Monetary Policy Rates (Benchmark interest rate) Go back
19. Source: World Bank Indicators (Total reserves) Go back
20. Source: Yahoo Finance (Exchange rate) Go back
21. Source: World Bank Indicators (Inflation rate) Go back
22. Source: Relbanks.com (Financial institutions by assets) Go back
23. Source: CIA World Factbook (Trade data) Go back
24. Source: World Bank Indicators (FDI data) Go back