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Economy of Germany

Population: 81 million in 20131

GDP: $3.73 trillion in 20132

GDP per capita: $46,269 nominal3 ($43,332 PPP4) in 2013

GDP growth rate: 1.6% in 20145


GDP by Industry 20126

Industry sectorValue added ($ billions) 2012Percent of total
Other activities1,62049.9%
Wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels34710.7%
Transport, storage and communication2567.9%
Mining and utilities1093.3%
Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing260.8%
Total value added3,246100%


Unemployment rate: 4.7% in Jan 20157

Employment by Industry 20138

Employment sector Employees (thousands) 2013Percent of total
Wholesale trade, retail trade and repair of motor vehicles5,81414.4%
Human health and social work4,94312.2%
Public administration and defence2,8327.0%
Professional, scientific and technical2,1845.4%
Administrative and support service1,9874.9%
Transportation and storage1,9674.9%
Accommodation and food service1,5753.9%
Finance and insurance1,2993.2%
Other service1,2033.0%
Information and communication1,1802.9%
Agriculture, forestry and fishing5811.4%
Arts, entertainment and recreation5491.4%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning3610.9%
Activities of households as employers2410.6%
Real estate2270.6%
Water supply, sewerage and waste management2150.5%
Mining and quarrying860.2%
Extraterritorial organizations and bodies210.1%
Total employment40,450100%


Top 10 Corporations by Revenue 2014* 9

RankCorporationRevenue ($ billions) 2014Profit ($ billions) 2014Assets ($ billions) 12/31/14Industry
5BMW Group956.8182Automobiles
8Deutsche Telekom711.1139Telecommunications
9Metro Group690.436Retail
10Munich Re653.7323Finance

* Corporate data calculated using the exchange rate 0.845 EUR = 1 USD


Household Wealth: $14.2 trillion (380% of GDP) in 201410

Household Wealth per Adult: $211,049 in 201410

Gini Coefficient: .306 in 201011


Central Government

Central Government Total Revenue: $1.63 trillion (44% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Total Expenditure: $1.62 trillion (44% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Budget Balance: +$0.01 trillion (0% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Public Debt: $1.63 trillion (44% of GDP) in Q2 2014* 13

Central Government 10 Year Bond Interest Rate: 0.49% on Jan 9, 201414

* Public debt calculated using the exchange rate 0.845 EUR = 1 USD

Public Funds


Tax Structure

Personal Income Tax Rates and Thresholds in 2013* 15

Corporate Tax Rate: 29.5% in 201416

* Individual thresholds using the exchange rate 0.845 EUR = 1 USD

Monetary Policy

Money Supply (Euro area, M1): $6.88 trillion in Nov 2014* 17

Benchmark Interest Rate (Euro area): 0.05% in Sept 201418

Total Reserves: $199 billion (5% of GDP) in 201319

Exchange Rate: 0.845 Euro = 1 U.S. Dollar on Jan 9, 201520

Inflation: 0.1% in Feb 201521

* Money supply calculated using an exchange rate 0.845 EUR = 1 USD

Financial Institutions

Top 10 Financial Institutions by Assets 2013* 22

RankFinancial InstitutionAssets ($ billions) 12/31/13
1Deutsche Bank1,907
4DZ Bank458
5Landesbank Baden-Wurttemberg324
6Bayerische Landesbank302
7Norddeutsche Landesbank238
9Hypo Real Estate Holding144

* Assets calculated using the exchange rate 0.845 EUR = 1 USD

International Accounts

Exports: $1.49 trillion (40% of GDP) in 201323

Imports: $1.23 trilion (33% of GDP) in 201323

Trade Balance: +$260 trillion (+7% of GDP) in 201323

Foreign Direct Investment Inflow: $27 billion (1% of GDP) in 201324

Foreign Direct Investment Outflow: $58 (2% of GDP) billion in 201324

Foreign Aid Inflow: N/A

Foreign Aid Outflow: $14.2 billion (0.4% of GDP) in 201325


1. Source: World Bank Indicators (Population) Go back
2. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP) Go back
3. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP per capita) Go back
4. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP per capita PPP) Go back
5. Source: Newsweek (GDP growth rate) Go back
6. Source: United Nations Statistics Division (GDP by industry) Go back
7. Source: The Sofia Globe (Unemployment rate) Go back
8. Source: International Labor Organization, Downloads (Employment by economic activity) Go back
9. Source: Annual reports (Corporate data) Go back
10. Source: Credit Suisse Global Wealth Databook (Household wealth) Go back
11. Source: CIA World Factbook (Gini coefficient) Go back
12. Source: CIA World Factbook (Government budget) Go back
13. Source: OECD Stat Extracts, National Accounts, Quarterly Public Sector Debt (Public debt) Go back
14. Source: Bloomberg (Government bond yield) Go back
15. Source: OECD Stat Extracts, Public Sector, Tax Database (Individual tax rates) Go back
16. Source: Tax Foundation (Corporate tax rate) Go back
17. Source: ECB Monetary developments (Money supply) Go back
18. Source: ECB Key interest rates (Benchmark interest rate) Go back
19. Source: World Bank Indicators (Total reserves) Go back
20. Source: Yahoo Finance (Exchange rate) Go back
21. Source: Global Post (Inflation rate) Go back
22. Source: Relbanks.com (Financial institutions by assets) Go back
23. Source: CIA World Factbook (Trade data) Go back
24. Source: OECD FDI in Figures (FDI data) Go back
25. Source: OECD Aid Statisitcs (Aid outflow) Go back