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Economy of Estonia

Population: 1.3 million in 20131

GDP: $24 billion in 20132

GDP per capita: $18,783 nominal3 ($25,049 PPP4) in 2013

GDP growth rate: 1.6% in 20135


GDP by Industry 20126

Industry sectorValue added ($ millions) 2012Percent of total
Other activities7,91440.2%
Wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels2,70513.7%
Transport, storage and communication2,54712.9%
Mining and utilities1,1375.8%
Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing7884.0%
Total value added19,691100%


Unemployment rate: 8.8% in 20137

Employment by Industry 20138

Employment sector Employees (thousands) 2013Percent of total
Wholesale trade, retail trade and repair of motor vehicles8113.0%
Transportation and storage477.6%
Public administration and defence436.9%
Human health and social work365.9%
Professional, scientific and technical264.2%
Agriculture, forestry and fishing264.3%
Administrative and support service233.7%
Accommodation and food service233.8%
Information and communication203.2%
Arts, entertainment and recreation172.7%
Real estate121.9%
Other service111.8%
Finance and insurance101.6%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning71.1%
Mining and quarrying50.8%
Water supply, sewerage and waste management30.5%
Not elsewhere classified10.1%
Extraterritorial organizations and bodies00.1%
Activities of households as employers00.0%
Total employment621100%


Top 10 Corporations by Revenue 20139



Household Wealth: $43 billion (179% of GDP) in 201410

Household Wealth per Adult: $40,856 in 201410

Gini Coefficient: .327 in 201111


Central Government

Central Government Revenue: $8.5 billion (36% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Expenditure: $8.6 billion (36% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Budget Balance: -$0.1 billion (0% of GDP) in 201312

Central Government Public Debt: $603 million (3% of GDP) in Q3 2014* 13

Central Government 10 Year Bond Interest Rate: N/A

* Public debt calculated using the exchange rate .883 EUR = 1 USD

Government Funds


Tax Structure

Individual Income Tax Rates and Thresholds in 201314

Corporate Tax Rate: 21% in 201415

Monetary Policy

Money Supply (Euro area, M1): $6.58 trillion in Nov 2014* 16

Benchmark Interest Rate (Euro area): Main Refinancing rate = 0.05% in Sept 201417

Total Reserves: $314 million (1% of GDP) in 201318

Exchange Rate: .883 Euros = 1 U.S. Dollar on Feb 9, 201519

Inflation: 2.8% in 201320

* Money supply calculated using the exchange rate .883 EUR = 1 USD

Financial Institutions

Top 10 Financial Institutions by Assets 201321

N/A (data not available at Relbanks.com)

International Accounts

Exports: $15.1 billion (63% of GDP) in 201322

Imports: $16.4 billion (68% of GDP) in 201322

Trade Balance: -$1.3 billion (-5% of GDP) in 201322

Foreign Direct Investment Inflow: $964 million (4% of GDP) in 201323

Foreign Direct Investment Outflow: N/A

Foreign Aid Inflow: N/A

Foreign Aid Outflow: N/A


1. Source: World Bank Indicators (Population) Go back
2. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP) Go back
3. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP per capita) Go back
4. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP per capita PPP) Go back
5. Source: World Bank Indicators (GDP growth rate) Go back
6. Source: United Nations Statistics Division (GDP by industry) Go back
7. Source: World Bank Indicators (Unemployment rate) Go back
8. Source: International Labor Organization, ILOSTAT, Downloads (Employment by economic activity) Go back
9. Source: Annual reports (Corporate data) Go back
10. Source: Credit Suisse Global Wealth Databook (Household wealth) Go back
11. Source: World Bank Indicators (Gini coefficient) Go back
12. Source: CIA World Factbook (Government budget) Go back
13. Source: IMF Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board, Access National Summary Data (Public debt) Go back
14. Source: OECD Stats, Public Sector, Taxation, Tax Database (Individual tax rates) Go back
15. Source: Tax Foundation (Corporate tax rate) Go back
16. Source: ECB Monetary developments (Money supply) Go back
17. Source: ECB Key interest rates (Benchmark interest rate) Go back
18. Source: World Bank Indicators (Total reserves) Go back
19. Source: Yahoo Finance (Exchange rate) Go back
20. Source: World Bank Indicators (Inflation rate) Go back
21. Source: Relbanks.com (Financial institutions by assets) Go back
22. Source: CIA World Factbook (Trade data) Go back
23. Source: World Bank Indicators (FDI data) Go back